Top 7 Different Types of Tablets or Medications Used for Diabetes

Right foods, medications, and regular exercise play a vital role in keeping blood sugar under control for diabetes patients. But, there are some people who think that medications for diabetes is only used to reduce the level of glucose in the blood, and have doubts if these medications would induce conditions like hypoglycemia. Having a better knowledge about different types of tablets or medications used for diabetes would clear this doubt.

While insulin is the sole solution for people with type 1 diabetes, in this article we will look into top 7 popular medications used by type 2 diabetic patients and how they work.

Doctor’s role in determining the right medications and treatments for a diabetic patient is really important, and Doctors take extra care in structuring this treatment. Taking these medications along with right food habits and regular exercise would effectively keep blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, and blood pressure under control. Additionally, this will prevent many problems that have its roots in diabetes and paves way for healthier life.

Tablets, injections, and medications for diabetes are not prescribed to cure it. They are prescribed just to keep the sugar levels under control. So, it is very important to keep taking those medications. It is necessary to change the levels of medications after certain time period. There are two types of tablets that are usually prescribed for diabetes patients. For some, it may be advised to take both simultaneously. Even if they are taken simultaneously, they both perform different tasks. Knowing the workings of prescribed medications, we will get a more clear picture on this.


Metformin is the primary medicine that is for type 2 diabetes patients by American Diabetes Association. This tablet controls the level of glucose secreted into the blood by the liver. Our body cells absorb glucose in blood through the signal from insulin.

Metformin tablets are not just prescribed for diabetes patients. It is also prescribed for older people who have possibilities for future diabetes, along with lifestyle changes. This tablet is prescribed for obese people as well. People who consume this tablet might undergo side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea etc.. People with kidney problems should refrain from taking this.


Sulphonyureas tablet will trigger secretion of insulin in the pancreas. This tablet is prescribed for people who do not consume metformin, and to people who are not obese. As this increases the insulin secretion, it will help to reduce blood sugar levels. Additionally, it can bring in side effects such as weight gain, nausea, and diarrhea.


Pioglitazone tablet will increase the sensitivity of insulin, and make it absorb glucose present in the blood. This tablet will be prescribed along with metformin or sulphonylureas or with both of them together. This can induce side effects such as weight gain, and fluid formation in legs. People with the history of heart conditions and people who are more vulnerable to bone fractures should not consume this tablet.


When we are really hungry, and there is a tasty meal present in front of us. In this situation, our body secretes a hormone called GLP. This hormone signals the pancreas that soon there will be an increase in blood glucose levels, so it is time to secrete insulin. We will start to enjoy our favorite meal. There is no problem until now. But, for diabetes patients, the GLP hormone will fail to function immediately keeping the food in the mouth. Due to this reason, insulin secretion will be arrested. Gliptin tablet will postpone the failure of GLP hormone, thereby increases the time period for insulin secretion. This tablet is prescribed for patients who cannot take Sulphonylureas and Pioglitazone. Consuming this tablet will prevent the increase in blood sugar levels. At the same time, it will also keep the sugar levels from dipping way too low. Additionally, taking this tablet will not induce weight gain.


Kidneys in our body do the job of expelling excess levels of water, nutrients, toxins, and waste out of our body. As glucose is needed for our body, excess levels of glucose in our blood will be retained by nephrons in the kidney. SGL T2 tablet will avoid retention of this excess sugar in the blood and helps with expelling it. This tablet functions for a very short time period, so the person taking it need not have the fear that it might expel all the glucose in the blood.

This tablet is available in three kinds namely Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin, and Empagliflozin. It should only be consumed with Doctor’s prescription. Only of this tablet can be consumed per day. For some people, this tablet can induce urinary infection. At the same time, studies find out, regular use of this tablet increases the efficiency of the heart.


This will avoid the increase in blood sugar levels while taking food. Glucose gets mixed with blood only after digestion process, this tablet will remove the glucose before it gets mixed with blood. So, only less level of sugar gets mixed with blood. This sugar will be absorbed by body cells through signals from insulin. This tablet might induce side effects such as diarrhea, and inflammation of the stomach.

Nateglinide and Repaglinide

Nateglinide and Repaglinide trigger insulin secretion in the pancreas. This is not usually prescribed for every diabetes patient. It is only prescribed for people who cannot intake timely foods. This tablet functions only for a short time duration. So, it is enough to consume it before having the food. This tablet could induce side effects such as weight gain, and reduction in blood glucose levels.

Quick Tips to Keep Blood Sugar Levels in Normal Range

  • Get a better knowledge about the prescribed tablets by talking to the Doctor.
  • Some tablets start to work immediately after consuming it, and some tablets take time to work. So, get a better knowledge about the time taken for each tablet to start its task, and also they way it reduces the blood sugar levels.
  • Keep note of the effectiveness of new tablets prescribed by the Doctor. Noting the level of changes in blood sugar levels after taking the tablet will help to determine its dosage, and plan accordingly.
  • The patient should have better awareness about the side effects of a particular tablet.
  • Before structuring your treatment, Doctors will consider your health conditions and medications you use for various other problems. So, avoiding self-medication for diabetes is a must.
  • Take regular blood tests as advised by the Doctor. Doing this will help to identify the effectiveness of the medications.