Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is the leading cause of infertility, and the most frequent endocrine problem in women. Both these condition causes hormone imbalance.
Imbalance in hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and androgen leads to PCOD. It is not completely known why or how the changes in the hormone levels occur. however, these changes lead to improper ovulation resulting in the development of many immature eggs. In normal ovulation, one or more eggs get matured and are released during one menstrual cycle. In PCOD, eggs are not released from the ovaries and they form many small cysts. Women with this disorder often have a mother or sister who has symptoms similar to that of polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore it is thought to have a genetic connection.
Symptoms tend to be mild at first. You may have only a few symptoms or many of them. The most common symptoms are:
- Delayed cycles
- Scanty menstrual bleeding or irregular spotting during the menstrual cycle
- Excessive weight gain
- Extra facial hair (Often women get thicker and darker facial hair)
- Hair fall (scalp)
- Difficulty in conceiving (Infertility)
- History of menstrual irregularities with weight gain or increased facial hair
- Blood tests to see hormonal levels can reconfirm the diagnosis. Blood tests are also done for glucose metabolism as this found to be deranged in same cases of PCOD
- An ultrasound of the ovaries leads to a clear diagnosis as we can see the typically multicystic or polycystic ovaries.
- Regular exercise and balanced diet. One should try to lose weight with exercise and diet management preferably under the guidance of a dietician.
- Hormonal pills are usually needed which should only be taken under proper medical guidance.
- A diabetes medicine called metformin may also be needed.
- Fertility medicines will be needed if you are trying to get pregnant.
- If above treatment does not correct the problem, then surgical treatment is needed through laparoscopy.
- PCOD can be very well treated and also the problems associated with it. However, proper diagnosis is a must before starting with your treatment.